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Reading / Unit 1: Conditionals (Mệnh đề điều kiện)

Ngày đăng: 2015-12-17
1. Câu điều kiện loại I:
  • To express a true situation in the present/ future.
(Diễn tả tình huống có thật ở hiện tại và tương lai).
  • Form: If S +V(present simple), S + will + V infinitive
Eg: If I see him this afternoon, I will tell him about it

2. Câu điều kiện loại II:- To express an untrue situation in the present/ future.
(Diễn tả tình huống không có thật ở hiện tại.)
  • Form: S + V-ed/ were/could, S + would/could/might + V infinitve.
Eg: If I were younger, I would apply for that position
If I could swim, I would go swimming with you now.

3. Câu điều kiện loại III:
  • To express an untrue situation in the past.
(Diễn tả tình huống không có thật ở quá khứ.)
  • Form: S + had + V past participle, S + would/could/might have + past participle.
Eg: If they had enough time, they would have seen a movie yesterday.
 
4. Omission of If (Dạng rút gọn của IF thường gặp trong bài thi TOEIC)
If can be omitted, provided that the subject and verb are inverted
  • If you agree to the offer, please sign the contract. (Câu điều kiện loại I)
Should you agree, please sign the contract.
  • If I were in your shoes, I would not say so. (Câu điều kiện loại II)
Were I in your shoes, I would not say so.
  • If I had been there at that moment, I would have helped you. (Câu điều kiện loại III)
Had I been there at the moment, I would have helped you.

Creat sentences with the same meaning by omitting if.
1. If you should need more money. go to the bank before six o’clock.
-> Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.
2. If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
->....................................................................................................................
3. If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
->....................................................................................................................
4. If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better job.
->....................................................................................................................
5. If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately.
->....................................................................................................................
6. She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared.
->....................................................................................................................
5. Implied Conditions (Câu điều kiện ám chỉ)
Eg1: I would have gone with you, but I had to study.
Would have gonelà vế hai của câu điều kiện loại 3, hàm ý điều không có thật trong quá khứ, nên câu trên ý nói “Lẽ ra tôi đã đi với bạn” nhưng thực ra đã không đi vì lúc đó “Tôi phải học”.
Eg2: I never would have succeeded without your help. (If you hadn’t helped me...)
Eg3: She ran; otherwise, she would have missed her bus. (If she hadn’t run.......)

Identify the implied conditions by creating sentences using if-clauses.
1. I would have visited you, but I didn’t know that you were at home.
-> I would have visited you if I had known you were at home.
2. It wouldn’t have been a good meeting without Rosa.
->....................................................................................................................
3. I would have answered the phone, but I didn’t here it ring.
->....................................................................................................................
4. I couldn’t have finished the work without your help.
->....................................................................................................................
5. I like to travel. I would have gone to Nepal last summer, but I didn’t have enough money.
->....................................................................................................................
Complete the sentences with your own words
1. I would have......, but I didn’t have enough time.
->....................................................................................................................
2. I couldn’t have............... without my parents’help.
->....................................................................................................................
3. I would.........., but I don’t have enough money.
->....................................................................................................................
4. I ran out of time. Otherwise, I would have.................
->....................................................................................................................
5. I could................, but I don’t want to.
->....................................................................................................................
6. I set my alarm for six everyday. Otherwise, I would.................
->....................................................................................................................

6. Tenses in as if… /I wish…/ It’s time… Clause (Thì của động từ trong câu As if, I wish…)
  • … as if + S+ subjunctive verb: Để diễn tả tình huống không có thật ở hiện tại,
người ta dùng cấu trúc sau:
As if (cứ như là/ như thể) + I/you/she/he/it/they + were/ V-ed/ could…
Eg: Mary acted as if she were a doctor (thực tế bây giờ cô ấy không phải là bác sĩ.)
  • Hoặc ta cũng dùng; I/you/she/he/it/they had + past participle để nói đến tình huống không có thật ở quá khứ.
Eg: Nick spoke as if he had not known the time to meet me. (Nick knew the time.)
  • Verb forms of the I wish clause: which is used when the speaker wants something to be the opposite to reality or when one makes wishes about the futre.
  • Câu ước muốn loại I được dùng để diễn tả điều có thể xảy ra ở Hiện tại và Tương lai:
Form: S + wish S would + v infinitive
Eg: I wish I would have a nice holiday this summer.
  • Câu ước muốn loại II được dùng để diễn tả điều ước không có thật ở Hiện tại:
Form: S + wish S + v-ed/ could/ were
Eg: I wish I could type better.
  • Câu ước muốn loại III được dùng để diễn tả điều ước không có thật ở quá khứ:
Form: S + wish S + had + V past participle
Eg: I wish I had seen him off at the airport yesterday.
 
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